|Home-made still, REWOP from IMDB trailer|
This excerpt from The Monuments Men reminded me of the expression not to be worth the candle. In 1611, Randle Cotgrave published A dictionarie of the French and English tongues, where the expression appears in the form Le jeu ne vaut pas la chandelle†, but its first appearance in English
was ca. 1690 in Sir William Temple's Works:
"Perhaps the Play is not worth the Candle."Maybe Sir William was making a bilingual pun on jeu , as I believe he may have been talking about lighting a theatre; he didn't make enough in ticket receipts to pay for the lighting. Lighting a theatre, like lighting a cathedral, required a significant outlay††.
I mean to investigate this further, but I'm preparing for a jaunt to Leeds, so am not, as they say. 'time-rich'. And I have more to say about candle-based metaphors.<autobiographical_note date_range="1969-1970">
I have first-hand experience of naked flames in a theatre – but gaslight rather than candles. The Watford Palace Theatre must have been one of the last to use gaslight. I was queueing for interval drinks (in a slow-moving queue on a spiral staircase) and the first I knew of anything being amiss was when my companion turned and said 'Bob, your hair's on fire'. Happy days...
This is what Etymonline has to say about candle:
Old English candel "lamp, lantern, candle," an early ecclesiastical borrowing from Latin candela "a light, torch, candle made of tallow or wax," from candere "to shine," from PIE root *kand- "to glow, to shine, to shoot out light" (cf. Sanskrit cand- "to give light, shine," candra- "shining, glowing, moon;" Greek kandaros "coal;" Welsh cann "white;" Middle Irish condud "fuel").
Candles were unknown in ancient Greece (where oil lamps sufficed), but common from early times among Romans and Etruscans. Candles on birthday cakes seems to have been originally a German custom. To hold a candle to originally meant "to help in a subordinate capacity," from the notion of an assistant or apprentice holding a candle for light while the master works (cf. Old English taporberend "acolyte"). To burn the candle at both ends is recorded from 1730.
In my days as an altar-boy I was from time-to-time called upon to be, to use that Old English word, a taporberend – 'taper-bearer', geddit? (The only person I held a candle to was the Abbot of St Benedict's.)
Update 2014.03.15.21:55 – Added bits in blue.
Update 2014.03.18.11:15 – Added this note:
† This is the entry, which I didn't have time to track down at the time of writing:
‡ Perhaps I'm exaggerating a bit here. The scene was quite short, and I don't have the lightning reflexes of a Wordsworth ("Ten thousand saw I at a glance". Chan Canasta has got nothing on this guy.) But there were dozens of those candles.
Update 2014.05.02.14:15 – Updated footer
Update 2014.05.30.14:55 – Added this note:
†† According to a televised version of the candle-lit Duchess of Malfi, the candles cost about £400 per night.
Update 2015.05.07.16:15 – Added photo (for Pinterest).
Mammon When Vowels Get Together V5.2: Collection of Kindle word-lists grouping different pronunciations of vowel-pairs. Now complete (that is, it covers all vowel pairs – but there's still stuff to be done with it; an index, perhaps...?)
And here it is: Digraphs and Diphthongs . The (partial) index has an entry for each vowel pair that can represent each monophthong phoneme. For example AE, EA and EE are by far the most common represntations of the /i:/ phoneme, but there are eight other possibilities. The index uses colour to give an idea of how common a spelling is, ranging from bright red to represent the most common to pale olive green to represent the least common.
Also available at Amazon: When Vowels Get Together: The paperback.
And if you have no objection to such promiscuity, Like this.
Freebies (Teaching resources: over 40.300 views and well over 5,600 downloads to date**. They're very eclectic - mostly EFL and MFL, but one of the most popular is from KS4 History, dating from my PGCE, with well over 2,000 views and nearly 1,000 downloads to date. So it's worth having a browse.)
** This figure includes the count of views for a single resource held in an account that I accidentally created many years ago.